Posted October 7, 2015on:
Born on June 12, 1929, Anne Frank was a German-Jewish teenager who was forced to go into hiding during World War II. She and her family, along with four others, spent over two years hiding from the Nazis in an annex of rooms above her father’s office in Amsterdam. During this time, Anne wrote about her experiences and wishes. She was 15 when the family was found and sent to a concentration camp. She was one of over one million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust. The Diary of Anne Frank has since been read by millions.
Annelies Marie Frank was born June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, to Otto and Edith Frank. Her father was a lieutenant in the German army during World War I, who later became a businessman. Anne also had a sister named Margot who was three years older than her.
For the first five years of her life, the Frank family lived in an apartment on the outskirts of Frankfurt. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, Otto Frank fled to Amsterdam in the Netherlands, where he had business connections. The rest of the Frank family followed, with Anne being the last of the family to arrive in February 1934 after staying with her grandparents in Aachen.
According to Biography, the Franks were a typical upper middle-class German-Jewish family living in a quiet, religiously diverse neighborhood near the outskirts of Frankfurt. However, Anne was born on the eve of dramatic changes in German society that would soon disrupt her family’s tranquil life as well as the lives of all other German Jews. During the late 1920s and early 1930s, the National German Socialist Workers Party (Nazi Party) led by Adolph Hitler became Germany’s leading political force, winning control of the government in 1933.
I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by, singing, ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife.’
–Otto Frank, Biography: Anne Frank
When Hitler became chancellor of Germany on January 20, 1933, the Frank family realized that it was time to flee. They moved to Amsterdam, Netherlands. Anne described the circumstances of her family’s emigration years later in her diary: “Because we’re Jewish, my father immigrated to Holland in 1933, where he became the managing director of the Dutch Opekta Company, which manufactures products used in making jam.”
Anne began attending Amsterdam’s Sixth Montessori School. Biography states that throughout the rest of the 1930s, Anne lived a relatively happy and normal childhood. She had many friends, along with being a bright and inquisitive student.
In 1940, the Germans took over Amsterdam too and imposed anti-Jewish measures. Jews were required to wear a yellow Star of David at all times and observe a strict curfew. Anne and her sister were forced to transfer to a segregated Jewish school. Otto Frank managed to keep control of his company by officially signing ownership over to two of his Christian associates, while continuing to run the company from behind the scenes.
Within two years, German authorities and their Dutch collaborators had begun to concentrate Jews from throughout the Netherlands at Westerbork, a transit camp near the Dutch town of Assen, not far from the German border. From Westerbork, German officials deported the Jews to Auschwitz-Birkenau and Sobiborkilling centers in German-occupied Poland. As Anne later wrote in her diary, “After May 1940, the good times were few and far between; first there was the war, then the capitulation and then the arrival of the Germans, which is when the trouble started for the Jews.”
I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, as I have never been able to confide in anyone, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.
–Anne Frank, Biography: Anne Frank
Only a few short weeks later, Margot received an official summons to report to a Nazi work camp in Germany. The very next day, the family went into hiding in makeshift quarters in an empty space at the back of Otto Frank’s company building, which they referred to as the Secret Annex. They were accompanied in hiding by Otto’s business partner Hermann van Pels as well as his wife, Auguste, and son, Peter. Otto’s employees Kleiman and Kugler, as well as Jan and Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl, provided food and information about the outside world.
For the next two years, the families remained in hiding, never once stepping outside the dark, damp, sequestered portion of the building. To pass the time, Anne wrote extensive daily entries in her diary. In addition to her diary, Anne filled a notebook with quotes from her favorite authors, original stories and the beginnings of a novel about her time in the Secret Annex.
On August 4, 1944, the Gestapo (German Secret State Police) discovered the hiding place after being tipped off by an anonymous Dutch caller, and the Frank family and the four others hiding with them were arrested. One month later, the Gestapo sent them to Auschwitz, a concentration camp complex in German-occupied Poland. Upon arriving at Auschwitz, the men and women were separated. This was the last time that Otto Frank ever saw his wife or daughters.
Selected for labor due to their youth, Anne and her sister were transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp near Celle, in northern Germany in late October 1944. Their mother was not allowed to go with them. She fell ill and died at Auschwitz shortly thereafter, on January 6, 1945. Biography states that at Bergen-Belsen, food was scarce, sanitation was awful, and disease ran rampant. Anne and her sister both came down with typhus in the early spring and died within a day of each other in March 1945, only a few weeks before British soldiers liberated the camp. Anne Frank was just 15 years old at the time of her death.
“There was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings.”
–Otto Frank, Biography: Anne Frank
At the end of the war, Otto Frank returned home to Amsterdam, searching for news of his family. On July 18, 1945, he met two sisters who had been with Anne and Margot at Bergen-Belsen and delivered the tragic news of their deaths. He also found Anne’s diary, which had been saved by Miep Gies, and Biography notes that he was awestruck by what he discovered.
The Secret Annex: Diary Letters was published on June 25, 1947. Since that time, Anne’s diary has been published in 67 languages. Countless editions, as well as screen and stage adaptations, of the work have been created around the world. It is also used in thousands of middle school and high school curricula in Europe and the Americas. Her diary has become a symbol for the lost promise of the children who died in the Holocaust.
It’s utterly impossible for me to build my life on a foundation of chaos, suffering and death. I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness; I hear the approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too. I feel the suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow feel that everything will change for the better, that this cruelty too shall end, that peace and tranquility will return once more.
–Anne Frank, Biography: Anne Frank